Estimation of lower extremity muscle activity in gait using the wearable inertial measurement units and neural network

Min Khant, Darwin Gouwanda, Alpha A. Gopalai, King Hann Lim, Chee Choong Foong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The inertial measurement unit (IMU) has become more prevalent in gait analysis. However, it can only measure the kinematics of the body segment it is attached to. Muscle behaviour is an important part of gait analysis and provides a more comprehensive overview of gait quality. Muscle behaviour can be estimated using musculoskeletal modelling or measured using an electromyogram (EMG). However, both methods can be tasking and resource intensive. A combination of IMU and neural networks (NN) has the potential to overcome this limitation. Therefore, this study proposes using NN and IMU data to estimate nine lower extremity muscle activities. Two NN were developed and investigated, namely feedforward neural network (FNN) and long short-term memory neural network (LSTM). The results show that, although both networks were able to predict muscle activities well, LSTM outperformed the conventional FNN. This study confirms the feasibility of estimating muscle activity using IMU data and NN. It also indicates the possibility of this method enabling the gait analysis to be performed outside the laboratory environment with a limited number of devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number556
Number of pages19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • EMG
  • inertial sensor
  • long short-term memory
  • muscle activity
  • neural network

Cite this