Essential oils of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade and their antibacterial activities

Yasodha Sivasothy, Wong Keng Chong, Abdul Hamid, Ibrahim M. Eldeen, Shaida Fariza Sulaiman, Khalijah Awang

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The essential oils obtained by hydrodistilation of the leaves and rhizomes of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade were analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Forty-six constituents were identified in the leaf oil, while 54 were identified in the oil from the rhizomes. The leaf oil was clearly dominated by β-caryophyllene (31.7%), while the oil from the rhizomes was predominantly monoterpenoid, with camphene (14.5%), geranial (14.3%), and geranyl acetate (13.7%) the three most abundant constituents. The evaluation of antibacterial activities using the micro-dilution technique revealed that both the leaf and rhizome oils were moderately active against the Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus spizizenii and Staphylococcus aureus, and the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas stutzeri.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-517
Number of pages4
JournalFood Chemistry
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • β-Caryophyllene
  • Antibacterial activity
  • Camphene
  • Essential oils
  • Halia bara
  • Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade

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