Background: The issues surroundinga nemiamanagement in patients receivingd ialysis therapy are complex and widely debated. Although numerous trials have been published, clinical practice patterns may differ, particularly in the presence of uncertainty about the optimal management of anemia in this setting. Methods: We examined data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) regarding use of erythropoietic agents (EA), hemoglobin, and ferritin concentrations and transferrin saturation in 8476 prevalent dialysis patients in Australia and New Zealand duringth e 6months precedingMa rch 31, 2001. From this cross-sectional survey, we examined the distribution of reported hemoglobin concentration, transferrin saturation, and ferritin concentration. Among hemodialysis patients, other predictors of hemoglobin examined included urea reduction ratio (URR), age, sex, and the presence of comorbidities.