In adult bone marrow, mature erythroblasts are produced within structures called erythroblastic islands and then cross the endothelial barrier to reach circulation. Erythroblastic islands are composed of a central macrophage surrounded by maturing erythroblasts. In this study, it is shown that erythroid cells, but not the other mature hematopoietic cells, coexpress 2 angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and placenta growth factor (PIGF). Secretion of both VEGF-A and PIGF increases during in vitro erythroid differentiation. Erythroblast-conditioned medium can induce both migration of monocytes and endothelial cells and the permeability of endothelial cells. These effects are inhibited by anti-PIGF and/or anti-VEGF antibodies. Finally, it is shown that VEGF-A and PIGF proteins are expressed by bone marrow erythroblasts in vivo. Angiogenic factors secreted by erythroblasts may promote interactions either with macrophages in erythroblastic islands or with endothelial cells that would facilitate the passage of erythroid cells through the endothelial barrier. A? 2001 by The American Society of Hematology.