Epidemiology and Adverse Drug Reactions

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An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an event that has led to a potentially serious adverse medical event caused by use of an ethical drug or combination of drugs when used as prescribed. This chapter provides an overview of the most common causes of an ADR in a forensic context with the intent that practitioners will be better able to recognise unexpected adverse drug-related events. Epidemiological studies provide information on the most likely cause(s) of a condition, particularly when there are several factors associated with the condition, for example death possibly caused by a number of factors such as drugs found in a person with significant natural disease. The major enzymes that are involved in adverse drug effects comprise the phase 1 cytochrome P450 system that is responsible for many of the known drug interactions. Drug transporters are proteins that facilitate movement of drugs into target cells and organs.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationHandbook of Forensic Medicine
EditorsBurkhard Madea
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9781119648628
ISBN (Print)9781119648550
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • adverse drug reaction
  • drug transporters
  • enzyme system
  • epidemiological studies
  • forensic medicine

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