|Title of host publication||eLS|
|Number of pages||7|
|Publication status||Published - Dec 2018|
Sexually antagonistic selection (SAS) occurs when the direction of natural selection on a trait, or a combination of traits, differs between the sexes. For example, the different roles of females and males in reproduction, along with different interactions between each sex and the environment, can generate selection for larger body size in one sex and smaller body size in the other – a pattern of selection that may eventually lead to the evolution of sexual size dimorphism. SAS has been documented in several animal and plant populations and is thought to constrain adaptation and reduce population fitness. Recent research has emphasised that the intensity of SAS depends, in part, on environmental conditions of the population, which may vary over time or across each species' geographic range. Theory predicts that SAS should be more common in stable compared to changing environments. These predictions have some experimental support, though the general manner with which environmental changes affect SAS remains an open question.