Enso extremes and diversity: dynamics, teleconnections, and impacts

Agus Santoso, Wenju Cai, Mat Collins, Mike McPhaden, Fei-Fei Jin, Eric Guilyardi, Gabriel Vecchi, Dietmar Dommenget, Guojian Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalComment / DebateOtherpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


In boreal spring of 2014, the tropical Pacific was primed for an El Niño, when most forecast agencies such as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology elevated their El Niño probability to more than 60%. A remarkable increase in warm water volume with a series of westerly wind bursts in boreal spring alerted the El Niño's Southern Oscillation (ENSO) experts to the possibility of a strong event. The mean climate, upon which ENSO evolved, varied on multi-decadal time scales, manifesting itself as a global-scale phenomenon in what is commonly known as the IPO or PDO.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1969-1972
Number of pages4
JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015
EventENSO Extremes and Diversity: Dynamics, Teleconnection, and Impacts - University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia
Duration: 4 Feb 20156 Feb 2015

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