Enhancing the Antipsychotic Effect of Risperidone by Increasing Its Binding Affinity to Serotonin Receptor via Picric Acid: A Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Majid Alhomrani, Walaa F. Alsanie, Abdulhakeem S. Alamri, Hussain Alyami, Hamza Habeeballah, Heba A. Alkhatabi, Raed I. Felimban, John M. Haynes, Sonam Shakya, Bassem M. Raafat, Moamen S. Refat, Ahmed Gaber

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21 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to assess the utility of inexpensive techniques in evaluating the interactions of risperidone (Ris) with different traditional π-acceptors, with subsequent application of the findings into a Ris pharmaceutical formulation with improved therapeutic properties. Molecular docking calculations were performed using Ris and its different charge-transfer complexes (CT) with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanop-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-pquinon (BL), and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL), as donors, and three receptors (serotonin, dopamine, and adrenergic) as acceptors to study the comparative interactions among them. To refine the docking results and further investigate the molecular processes of receptor–ligand interactions, a molecular dynamics simulation was run with out-put obtained from AutoDock Vina. Among all investigated complexes, the [(Ris) (PA)]-serotonin (CTcS) complex showed the highest binding energy. Molecular dynamics simulation of the 100 ns run revealed that both the Ris-serotonin (RisS) and CTcS complexes had a stable conformation; however, the CTcS complex was more stable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number285
Number of pages16
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Antipsychotic drug
  • Charge-transfer complexes
  • Molecular docking
  • Risperidone

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