Enhanced third harmonic generation in single germanium nanodisks excited at the anapole mode

Gustavo Grinblat, Yi Li, Michael P. Nielsen, Rupert F. Oulton, Stefan A. Maier

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We present an all-dielectric germanium nanosystem exhibiting a strong third order nonlinear response and efficient third harmonic generation in the optical regime. A thin germanium nanodisk shows a pronounced valley in its scattering cross section at the dark anapole mode, while the electric field energy inside the disk is maximized due to high confinement within the dielectric. We investigate the dependence of the third harmonic signal on disk size and pump wavelength to reveal the nature of the anapole mode. Each germanium nanodisk generates a high effective third order susceptibility of π(3) = 4.3 × 10-9 esu, corresponding to an associated third harmonic conversion efficiency of 0.0001% at an excitation wavelength of 1650 nm, which is 4 orders of magnitude greater than the case of an unstructured germanium reference film. Furthermore, the nonlinear conversion via the anapole mode outperforms that via the radiative dipolar resonances by about 1 order of magnitude, which is consistent with our numerical simulations. These findings open new possibilities for the optimization of upconversion processes on the nanoscale through the appropriate engineering of suitable dielectric materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4635-4640
Number of pages6
JournalNano Letters
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 13 Jul 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • All-dielectric nanodisks
  • anapole mode
  • electric field enhancement
  • third harmonic generation

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