Enhanced Polymerization Rate and Conductivity of Ionic Liquid-Based Epoxy Resin

Paulina Maksym, Magdalena Tarnacka, Andrzej Dzienia, Karolina Matuszek, Anna Chrobok, Kamil Kaminski, Marian Paluch

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33 Citations (Scopus)


The kinetics of polymerization of Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (DGEBA), a well-known epoxy resin, with two ionic amines 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-butylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([apbim][NTf2]) and the tetrabutylammonium leucine ([N4444][Leu]) have been studied with the use of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) at various temperatures. We found many fundamental differences between the progress of this reaction with respect to the classical system (curing of epoxy resin with ordinary nonconducting hardeners). One of the most significant differences is related to the mechanism of polymerization. It is worthwhile to mention that usually the autocatalytic model is used to describe the curing of DGEBA with ordinary amines. However, herein, the kinetic curves followed a clearly exponential shape characteristic of first-order kinetics. We claim that the change in mechanism of polymerization is related to the presence of a conducting amine that acts as both the substrate and the catalyst of this specific chemical conversion. Also, it is presented that the pace of the reaction only weakly depends on temperature, which is reflected in the relatively low activation energy. On the other hand, the degree of monomer conversion stays around 45%-70% as typically reported for the polymerization of DGEBA with nonconducting hardeners. In addition, we measured the time evolution of dc conductivity as the reaction proceeded and observed that a change in this parameter correlates very well with the monomer conversion in contrast to the reaction of nonconducting systems. Finally, ionic conductivity of the resulted cured samples was investigated and found to be quite significant at the glass transition temperature with respect to other polymerized ionic liquids.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3262-3272
Number of pages11
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes

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