Electrospun ultrafine fibers prepared using a blend of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and bromine terminated poly(l-lactide) (PLA-Br), were surface modified using surface-initiated (SI) Cu(0) mediated polymerization. Copolymers based on N-acryloxysuccinimide (NAS) and a low fouling monomer (either N,N-dimethylacrylamide (DMA), N-(2-hydroxypropyl)acrylamide (HPA), or N-acryloylmorpholine (NAM)) were grafted from the fiber surface to impart surface functionality and to reduce nonspecific protein adsorption. Inclusion of the functional NAS monomer facilitated the conjugation of a nonbioactive cyclic RAD peptide and a bioactive cyclic RGD peptide, the latter expected to facilitate cell adhesion through its affinity for the α v β 3 integrin receptor. A detailed analysis of the surface of the electrospun fiber scaffolds in nongrafted form compared to the surface functionalized state is presented. Characteristic amino acid peaks are observed for both conjugated RGD and RAD peptides. Cell culture experiments confirmed cell specific attachment mediated through the presence of the bioactive RGD peptide mainly at high surface density.