Engineered hydrogen-bonded glycopolymer capsules and their interactions with antigen presenting cells

Kristian Kempe, Sue D Xiang, Paul Wilson, Md Arifur Rahim, Yi Ju, Michael R Whittaker, David M Haddleton, Magdalena Plebanski, Frank Caruso, Thomas P Davis

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14 Citations (Scopus)


Hollow glycopolymer microcapsules were fabricated by hydrogen-bonded layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly, and their interactions with a set of antigen presenting cells (APCs), including dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (MACs), and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), were investigated. The glycopolymers were obtained by cascade postpolymerization modifications of poly(oligo(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline methacrylate)-stat-glycidyl methacrylate) involving the modification of the glycidyl groups with propargylamine and the subsequent attachment of mannose azide by copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). Multilayer assembly of the hydrogen-bonding pair (glycopolymer/poly(methacrylic acid) (PMA)) onto planar and particulate supports (SiO2 particles, d = 1.16 μm) yielded stable glycopolymer films upon cross-linking by CuAAC. The silica (SiO2) particle templates were removed yielding hollow monodisperse capsules, as demonstrated by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Cellular uptake studies using flow cytometry revealed the preferential uptake of the capsules by DCs when compared to MACs or MDSCs. Mannosylated capsules showed a cytokine independent cis-upregulation of CD80 specifically on DCs and a trans-downregulation of PDL-1 on MDSCs. Thus, the glycopolymer capsules may have potential as vaccine carriers, as they are able to upregulate costimulatory molecules for immune cell stimulation on DCs and at the same time downregulate immune inhibitory receptors on suppressor APC such as MDSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6444-6452
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2017


  • CD80
  • dendritic cells
  • layer-by-layer
  • macrophages
  • mannose
  • MDSC
  • PDL-1
  • poly(2-oxazoline)

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