LIN28A and LIN28B, the mammalian homologs of lin-28, are implicated in malignant transformation in part because of their ability to promote degradation of the let-7 family of miRs. In the present study, we show that overexpression of Lin28b in vivo leads to an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) characterized by widespread infiltration of parenchymal organs with malignant CD4+ cells. Similar to patients with PTCL, Lin28b-transgenic mice show signs of inflammation such as eosinophilia, increased C-reactive protein, release of inflammatory cytokines, and pleural effusion. The PTCLs that develop in Lin28b mice are derived from activated T cells and show decreased let-7 expression, increased Il6 expression, activation of NF-?B, and infiltration of B cells, all resulting in an inflammatory microenvironment. In addition, LIN28B is overexpressed 7.5-fold in PTCL patient samples compared with activated CD4+ cells. The results of the present study demonstrate for the first time that Lin28b can transform primary cells in vivo, identify a previously unsuspected link between Lin28b and PTCL, and provide a unique animal model for the study of PTCL biology and therapy.