Endothelin is one of the most potent peptide vasoconstrictors thus far characterised. It is produced by the cleavage of its precursor big endothelin-1 by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1). The endothelin system which includes endothelin-1 (ET-1), ET receptors and ECE-1 is well characterised in the kidney and is known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Therefore, inhibition of ECE-1 and antagonism of ET receptors represent potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of ESRD. Here, we review the current literature on the localisation of ECE-1 in the normal kidney and how ECE-1 expression is altered in pathological conditions leading to ESRD. We also discuss the roles of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and chymase in mediating the production of ET-1 in the kidney in ESRD. As such, we also discuss that complete inhibition of ET-1 production in the kidney requires the inhibition of ECE-1, NEP and chymase.