Encoding methods for B +1 mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field

Desmond H. Y. Tse, Michael S. Poole, Arthur W. Magill, Jörg Felder, Daniel Brenner, N. Jon Shah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Parallel radiofrequency (RF) transmission, either in the form of RF shimming or pulse design, has been proposed as a solution to the B1+ inhomogeneity problem in ultra high field magnetic resonance imaging. As a prerequisite, accurate B1+ maps from each of the available transmit channels are required. In this work, four different encoding methods for B1+ mapping, namely 1-channel-on, all-channels-on-except-1, all-channels-on-1-inverted and Fourier phase encoding, were evaluated using dual refocusing acquisition mode (DREAM) at 9.4 T. Fourier phase encoding was demonstrated in both phantom and in vivo to be the least susceptible to artefacts caused by destructive RF interference at 9.4 T. Unlike the other two interferometric encoding schemes, Fourier phase encoding showed negligible dependency on the initial RF phase setting and therefore no prior B1+ knowledge is required. Fourier phase encoding also provides a flexible way to increase the number of measurements to increase SNR, and to allow further reduction of artefacts by weighted decoding. These advantages of Fourier phase encoding suggest that it is a good choice for B1+ mapping in parallel transmit systems at ultra high field.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-132
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • High-field MRI
  • Parallel transmit
  • Phase-rotation

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