Empowering indigenous networks: collaborative governance and the development of a Racial Vilification Code in the Australian Football League

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Few Indigenous Australians played Australian Rules football at the elite level before the 1980s. As the number of Indigenous players increased, a network of those who refused to accept on-field racial vilification developed. Opportunities for change were also seized by the Australian Football League, through a collaborative governance approach that empowered Indigenous players to inform strategies for reconciliation and education, and the development of anti-vilification rules. The case provides information about how governance structures may generate resources that improve socio-economic outcomes for indigenous and other disadvantaged people.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)472-491
Number of pages20
JournalThe International Journal of the History of Sport
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Australian Rules football
  • collaborative governance
  • Indigenous Australians
  • institutional entrepreneur
  • racism

Cite this