We have developed an analyser-based phase contrast X-ray imaging technique to measure the mean length scale of pores or particles that cannot be resolved directly by the system. By combining attenuation, phase and ultra-small angle X-ray scattering information, the technique was capable of measuring differences in airway dimension between lungs of healthy mice and those with mild and severe emphysema. Our measurements of airway dimensions from 2D images showed a 1:1 relationship to the actual airway dimensions measured using micro-CT. Using 80 images, the sensitivity and specificity were measured to be 0.80 and 0.89, respectively, with the area under the ROC curve close to ideal at 0.96. Reducing the number of images to 11 slightly decreased the sensitivity to 0.75 and the ROC curve area to 0.90, whilst the specificity remained high at 0.89.