Emission analysis of recycled tire rubber modified asphalt in hot and warm mix conditions

Xu Yang, Zhanping You, David Perram, David Hand, Zeyad Ahmed, Wei Wei, Sang Luo

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75 Citations (Scopus)


The hazardous emissions of crumb rubber (CR) modified asphalt during construction has been a concern for a long period. This study aims to identify the emission components in the CR modified asphalt in traditional hot mix asphalt (HMA) and with recently developed warm mix asphalt (WMA). The dynamic headspace gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was employed for identifying the emission of asphalt binders at 120°C, 140°C and 160°C. The coupling of gas chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (GC-FTIR) was used to analyze the emission during the plant mixing for conventional HMA, CR-HMA and CR-WMA. The results showed the emission amount was highly dependent on mixing temperature. The warm mix technology can reduce the emission level significantly and should be encouraged in the asphalt mixture containing CR. Asphalt source and other extra additives in producing CR modified asphalt can also affect the emission significantly. Asphalt mixture containing CR can release toxic emissions such as xylene and toluene significantly higher compared to that without CR. In addition, it was found that the emission amount from the GC–MS test for asphalt binder was lower than that in the field test for asphalt mix due to the thin asphalt film of asphalt mix.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)942-951
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Hazardous Materials
Publication statusPublished - 5 Mar 2019


  • Crumb rubber
  • Emission
  • Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS)
  • Hot mix asphalt
  • Warm mix asphalt

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