© 2019 Future Medicine Ltd. The initial management of locally advanced rectal cancer continues to evolve and formulating the ideal treatment plan remains challenging, with a multitude of emerging treatment strategies and either limited or inconsistent data to support these. The main objective of neoadjuvant treatment is to maximize disease control and minimize toxicity and impact on quality of life. Ultimately, the optimal approach needs to be personalized to the individual. In this Review, we discuss the various strategies currently used and being further investigated in the initial treatment of patients presenting with locally advanced rectal cancer. We describe the evidence behind the current standard of care recommendations and emerging new options, as well as potential biomarkers that may assist with further refining treatment selection.
- neoadjuvant therapy
- rectal cancer