Macrophages and dendritic cells initiate the innate immune response to infection and injury and contribute to inflammatory signaling to maintain the homeostasis of various tissues, which includes resident macrophages for the elimination of invading microorganisms and tissue damage. Inappropriate inflammatory signaling can lead to persistent inflammation and further develop into autoimmune and inflammation-associated diseases. Inflammatory signaling pathways have been well characterized, but how these signaling pathways are converted into sustained and diverse patterns of expression of cytokines, chemokines, and other genes in response to environmental challenges is unclear. Emerging evidence suggests the important role of epigenetic mechanisms in finely tuning the outcome of the host innate immune response. An understanding of epigenetic regulation of innate immune cell identity and function will enable the identification of the mechanism between gene-specific host defenses and inflammatory disease and will also allow for exploration of the program of innate immune memory in health and disease. This information could be used to develop therapeutic agents to enhance the host response, preventing chronic inflammation through preserving tissues and signaling integrity.