Emerging engineered magnetic nanoparticulate probes for molecular MRI of atherosclerosis: How far have we come?

Rupinder K Kanwar, Rajneesh Chaudhary, Takuya Tsuzuki, Jagat R Kanwar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, immunoinflammatory disease of the large and medium-sized arteries, and a major cause of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis often progresses silently for decades until the occurrence of a major catastrophic clinical event such as myocardial infarction, cardiac arrest and stroke. The main challenge in the diagnosis and management of atherosclerosis is to develop a safe, noninvasive technique that is accurate and reproducible, which can detect the biologically active high-risk vulnerable plaques (with ongoing active inflammation, angiogenesis and apoptosis) before the occurrence of an acute clinical event. This article reviews the events involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in light of recently advanced understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. Next, we elaborate on the interesting developments in molecular MRI, by describing the recently engineered magnetic nanoparticulate probes targeting clinically promising molecular and cellular players/processes, involved in early atherosclerotic lesion formation to plaque rupture and erosion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)899-916
Number of pages18
JournalNanomedicine
Volume7
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • angiogenesis
  • atherosclerosis
  • cell adhesion molecules
  • gadolinium
  • heat shock proteins
  • iron oxide nanoparticles
  • MRI
  • platelets

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