Ellipsoid bounding region-based ChainMail algorithm for soft tissue deformation in surgical simulation

Jinao Zhang, Yongmin Zhong, Chengfan Gu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Real-time modelling of force interaction with soft tissues is of great importance for interactive surgical simulation. This paper presents a new ChainMail algorithm for real-time modelling of soft tissue deformation under force interaction. Unlike traditional ChainMails using a box-shaped bounding region, the proposed method defines an ellipsoid-shaped bounding region according to the concept of principal strains in continuum mechanics to control the movement of chain elements. Based on this ellipsoid-shaped bounding region, new position adjustment rules are developed and further integrated with temporal-domain model dynamics for dynamic simulation of soft tissue deformation. Haptic interaction with soft tissues is achieved via force input, soft tissue deformation, and force feedback. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed ChainMail can simulate soft tissue mechanical behaviours, accommodate isotropic and homogeneous, anisotropic and heterogeneous materials, and handle large deformation. The proposed ChainMail also requires only small computational time, capable of achieving real-time computational performance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)903-918
Number of pages16
JournalInternational Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • ChainMail algorithm
  • Force interaction
  • Real-time systems
  • Soft tissue deformation
  • Surgical simulation

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