Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokines involved in innate, T cell, and granulocyte inflammation in pediatric focal cerebral arteriopathy

Kavitha Kothur, Christopher Troedson, Richard Webster, Sushil Bandodkar, Stephanie Chu, Louise Wienholt, Alun Pope, Mark T. Mackay, Russell C. Dale

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To determine the role of inflammation in pediatric transient focal cerebral arteriopathy using cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokines as biomarkers. Methods: We measured 32 cytokine/chemokines in acute cerebrospinal fluid collected from children with stroke due to focal cerebral arteriopathy (n = 5) using multiplex immunoassay and compared with two patients with arterial ischemic stroke due to other causes (non-focal cerebral arteriopathy group, vertebral dissection, n = 1; cryptogenic, n = 1), pediatric encephalitis (n = 43), and non-inflammatory neurological disease controls (n = 20). Results: Median age in the focal cerebral arteriopathy group was 9.3 years (range, 2.8–13 years). In the focal cerebral arteriopathy group (n = 5), four patients had middle cerebral ± distal carotid arteriopathy; one patient had posterior circulation arteriopathy. The median time from symptom onset to cerebrospinal fluid sampling was four days (range, 0.6–7 days). Only IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1, and CXCL10 levels were significantly higher in the acute cerebrospinal fluid of focal cerebral arteriopathy patients compared to non-inflammatory neurological disease controls and non-focal cerebral arteriopathy stroke. In contrast to focal cerebral arteriopathy, a broad array of Th1, Th2, Treg, Th17, B-cell related, and other broad spectrum cytokine/chemokines were elevated in encephalitis. Conclusion: The elevated cerebrospinal fluid cytokine/chemokines support innate, T cell, and granulocyte inflammatory mechanisms in children with focal cerebral arteriopathy. This warrants larger cohort studies to discriminate primary inflammatory signals of the arteriopathy from secondary inflammation due to the stroke itself.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)154-158
Number of pages5
JournalInternational Journal of Stroke
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Chemokine
  • cytokine
  • focal cerebral arteriopathy
  • inflammatory
  • stroke
  • vasculitis

Cite this