A review is given of the principles, key developments and representative applications of small electrodes in flow-through electrochemical (ec) detectors having very low effective dead volume (<10 μl) for voltammetric and amperometric detection in flowing solutions. Emphasis is placed on factors contributing to high sensitivity, reliability and selectivity of ec detection as an integral part of larger analytical systems utilizing continuously flowing, unsegmented streams, e.g., flow-injection and liquid chromatographic analyses. Solid and mercury electrodes are considered under potentiostatic and potentiodynamic control. A review is given also of auxiliary chemical and photolytic derivatizations coupled to ec detection. The majority of the literature on the subject relates to liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (l.c./ec); however, applications to these concepts to specific examples in flow-injection systems, as well as for on-line process control, should be obvious. Details of chromatographic separations and design of total analytical systems are not reviewed.