Electric vehicles destination charging: an overview of charging tariffs, business models and coordination strategies

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5 Citations (Scopus)


High penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) has resulted in an increasing need for charging infrastructure and efficient smart charging coordination of EVs. In addition to residential and public charging, destination charging is another important mode of EV charging, and it has the potential to cover residual public charging demand. Understanding of the factors and charging coordination strategies that ensure a sustainable destination charging business is therefore of utmost importance. Literature on the topic of EV smart charging and coordination is growing exponentially, but the terminology used to describe coordination strategies remained ambiguous. Hence, this paper systematically classifies the literature focused on the destination charging. In doing so, various charging tariffs and business models associated with destination charging are reviewed and a comprehensive discussion on their profitability and availability is provided. Recent EV charging coordination strategies are reviewed and categorized to clarify the commonly used terminology. Destination charging coordination strategies are then classified, and real-world charging coordination initiatives are reviewed and summarized. The analysis contained in this paper shows that further research work on charging coordination for destination charging should account for user behavior and the potential obstacles faced by the intended scale of destination charging to determine a suitable coordination strategy. It is also recognized that implicit charging coordination strategies are understudied and should be investigated because they may circumvent problems encountered by real-world EV charging coordination programs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113534
Number of pages25
JournalRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • Business model
  • Charging station
  • Charging tariff
  • Coordination strategy
  • Destination charging
  • Electric vehicle

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