Efficient iron-catalyzed n-demethylation of tertiary mmine-n-oxides under oxidative conditions

Gaik Orbell, Peter Scammells

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9 Citations (Scopus)


An investigation into the influence of oxidative conditions on the efficiency of opiate N-demethylation using iron powder has been carried out under non-classical Polonovski conditions. This approach involves a two-step process of N-oxidation and subsequent treatment of the intermediate N-oxide hydrochloride with the redox catalyst. Significant improvements in rate and yield have been realized for these reactions in the presence of molecular oxygen. In this context, further rate enhancement was achieved by the judicious addition of small amounts of ferric ions, leading to a concomitant reduction in the amount of the zero-valent iron primary catalyst that is required. This has led to a generalized improved methodology for the N-demethylation of oripavine, codeine, morphine, and thebaine. This protocol can also be carried out in one-pot without the need to isolate the intermediate N-oxide.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1515 - 1521
Number of pages7
JournalAustralian Journal of Chemistry
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2011

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