A deficiency in alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-gal A) activity causes Fabry disease. Virus-based delivery of genes can correct cells and establish a sustained supply of therapeutic proteins. Recombinant lentiviral vectors (LVs) show promise in this context. We first demonstrate LV-mediated marking of peripheral blood (PB) cells by transduction/transplantation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Stable enGFP expression was observed in PB for 37 weeks. Next, we transplanted Fabry mice with bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) transduced a single time with a LV encoding the human alpha-gal A cDNA. Sustained expression of functional alpha-gal A in Fabry mice was observed over 24 weeks. Plasma alpha-gal A activity from treated Fabry mice was two-fold higher than wild-type controls. Increased alpha-gal A activity, often to supra-normal levels, and reduction of globotriaosylceramide, a glycolipid that accumulates in Fabry disease, was observed in all organs assessed. In secondary bone marrow transplantations, Fabry mice showed multilineage marking of PB, splenocytes and BMMNCs, along with therapeutic levels of alpha-gal A activity in plasma and organs over 20 weeks. Lastly, we transduced mobilized PB CD34(+) cells from a Fabry patient and observed corresponding enzymatic increases. Thus a single LV-mediated transduction of primitive hematopoietic cells can result in sustained correction for Fabry disease.