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OBJECTIVES: We used a dynamic bladder infection in vitro model with synthetic human urine (SHU) to examine fosfomycin exposures to effectively kill, or prevent emergence of resistance, among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. METHODS: Dynamic urinary fosfomycin concentrations after 3 g oral fosfomycin were simulated, comparing single and multiple (daily for 7 days) doses. Pharmacodynamic response of 16 P. aeruginosa (MIC range 1 to >1024 mg/L) were examined. Baseline disc diffusion susceptibility, broth microdilution MIC and detection of heteroresistance were assessed. Pathogen kill and emergence of resistance over 72 h following a single dose, and over 216 h following daily dosing for 7 days, were investigated. The fAUC0-24/MIC associated with stasis and 1, 2 and 3 log10 kill were determined. RESULTS: Pre-exposure high-level resistant (HLR) subpopulations were detected in 11/16 isolates after drug-free incubation in the bladder infection model. Five of 16 isolates had >2 log10 kill after single dose, reducing to 2/16 after seven doses. Post-exposure HLR amplification occurred in 8/16 isolates following a single dose and in 11/16 isolates after seven doses. Baseline MIC ≥8 mg/L with an HLR subpopulation predicted post-exposure emergence of resistance following the multiple doses. A PK/PD target of fAUC0-24/MIC >5000 was associated with 3 log10 kill at 72 h and 7 day-stasis. CONCLUSIONS: Simulated treatment of P. aeruginosa urinary tract infections with oral fosfomycin was ineffective, despite exposure to high urinary concentrations and repeated daily doses for 7 days. Emergence of resistance was observed in the majority of isolates and worsened following prolonged therapy. Detection of a baseline resistant subpopulation predicted treatment failure.
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