Efficacy of non-surgical interventions for midfoot osteoarthritis: a systematic review

Polly Q.X. Lim, Merridy J. Lithgow, Michelle R. Kaminski, Karl B. Landorf, Hylton B. Menz, Shannon E. Munteanu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


This systematic review aims to investigate the efficacy of non-surgical interventions for midfoot osteoarthritis (OA). Key databases and trial registries were searched from inception to 23 February 2023. All trials investigating non-surgical interventions for midfoot OA were included. Quality assessment was performed using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool. Outcomes were pain, function, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. Effects (mean differences, standardised mean differences, risk ratios) were calculated where possible for the short (0 to 12 weeks), medium (> 12 to 52 weeks), and long (> 52 weeks) term. Six trials (231 participants) were included (one feasibility trial and five case series) — all were judged to be of poor methodological quality. Two trials reported arch contouring foot orthoses to exert no-to-large effects on pain in the short and medium term, and small-to-very-large effects on function in the short and medium term. Two trials reported shoe stiffening inserts to exert medium-to-huge effects on pain in the short term, and small effects on function in the short term. Two trials of image-guided intra-articular corticosteroid injections reported favourable effects on pain in the short term, small effects on pain and function in the medium term, and minimal long term effects. Two trials reported minor adverse events, and none reported health-related quality of life outcomes. The current evidence suggests that arch contouring foot orthoses, shoe stiffening inserts and corticosteroid injections may be effective for midfoot OA. Rigorous randomised trials are required to evaluate the efficacy of non-surgical interventions for midfoot OA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1409–1422
Number of pages14
JournalRheumatology International
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Foot
  • Foot joints
  • Midfoot
  • Midfoot osteoarthritis
  • Osteoarthritis

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