Effects of variation in modulator temperature during cryogenic modulation in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography

Frederic Begnaud, Christian Debonneville, Jean-Pierre Probst, Alain Chaintreau, Paul Morrison, Jacqui Adcock, Philip Marriott

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Many modulation systems in comprehensive 2D GC (GC x GC) are based on cryogenic methods. High trapping temperatures in these systems can result: in ineffective trapping of the more volatile compounds, whilst temperatures that are too low can prevent efficient remobilisation of some compounds. To better understand the trapping and release of compounds over a wide range of volatilities, we have investigated a number of different constant temperature modulator settings, and have also examined a constant temperature differential between the cryo-trap and the chromatographic oven. These investigations have led us to modify the temperature regulation capabilities of the longitudinally modulated cryogenic system (LMCS). In contrast to the current system, where the user sets a constant temperature for the cooling chamber, the user now sets the temperature difference between the cryotrap and the chromatographic oven. In this configuration, the cooling chamber temperature increases during the chromatographic run, tracking the oven temperature ramp. This produces more efficient, volatility-dependent modulation, and increases the range of volatile compounds that can be analysed under optimal trap-and-release conditions within a single analytical run. This System also reduces cryogenic fluid consumption.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3144 - 3151
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Separation Science
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

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