Effects of preheating and carbon dilution on material characteristics of laser-cladded hypereutectoid rail steels

Quan Lai, Ralph Abrahams, Wenyi Yan, Cong Qiu, Peter Mutton, Anna Paradowska, Xiya Fang, Mehdi Soodi, Xinhua Wu

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29 Citations (Scopus)


The impacts of preheating conditions and carbon dilution on the microstructural and mechanical properties of laser cladded rails using single and double cladding layers have been investigated for a hypereutectoid steel grades typically used under heavy haul conditions. The microstructures in the HAZ showed that formation of martensite, which has a detrimental effect on behaviour in wheel-rail contact, was successfully inhibited by increasing the length of the preheated region using a preheating temperature of 350 °C. Dilution of carbon from the hypereutectoid substrate was observed and its effect on the microstructures of the 410L ferritic stainless-steel deposits was investigated. The formation of ferrite in the 410L cladding layers was attributed to the very low carbon content, and no carbide formation was observed on boundaries of the ferritic grains. The thickness of dilution band was determined to be approximately equal to the thickness of the first cladding layer. Texture measurement obtained by EBSD showed a random trend owing to the formation of martensite in diluted bands. Strong solidification fibre texture was developed for double deposition, particularly in the second deposit. Mechanical characterization of the 410L deposits undertaken in terms of Vickers microhardness, shear and tensile yield strengths, and ultimate tensile and shear strengths were correlated with the observed microstructural morphologies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)548-563
Number of pages16
JournalMaterials Science and Engineering A: Structural Materials: Properties, Microstructure and Processing
Publication statusPublished - 17 Jan 2018


  • Carbon dilution
  • Hypereutectoid rail steel
  • Laser cladding
  • Mechanical properties
  • Microstructures
  • Preheating

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