Ovariectomized guinea-pigs were given a single dose of oestrogen or progestogen or the two steroids combined. Controls were given 0.9% saline. Four days after the injection, myometrial contractility in response to spasmogens was measured isometrically in isolated tissue baths, both before and after incubation in Kreb's solution with or without added prolactin. Further myometrial strips were also incubated with or without prolactin and the density of Na+/K+ ATPase 'pump' sites on the surface of the myometrial cell was estimated by labelling with tritiated ouabain. Incubation with prolactin significantly reduced the contractility of myometrial tissue from guinea-pigs given saline alone, progestogen alone or progestogen plus oestrogen, but not in tissue from animals pretreated with oestrogen. When myometrial strips from animals pretreated with oestrogen or progestogen were incubated without prolactin in the medium, there was a significant increase in the density of pump sites compared with the number in saline-pretreated animals; incubation with prolactin did not further modify this effect. When both steroids were administered together there was a significant increase only when prolactin was present in the incubation medium. There was also a significant increase in the density of pump sites after incubation of myometrium from the control (saline-pretreated) animals in the presence of prolactin.