Effects of instructional conditions and experience on the adoption of a learning tool

Dragan Gašević, Negin Mirriahi, Shane Dawson, Srećko Joksimović

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28 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents the results of a natural experiment investigating the effects of instructional conditions and experience on the adoption and sustained use of a learning tool. The experiment was conducted with undergraduate students, enrolled into four performing art courses (N = 77) at a research intensive university in Canada. The students used the video annotation software CLAS for course-based self-assessment on their performances. Although existing research offers insights into the factors predicting students’ intentions of accepting a learning tool, much less is known about factors that affect actual adoption and sustained tool use. The study explored the use of CLAS amongst undergraduate students in four courses across two consecutive semesters. Trace data of students’ tool use, graph-based measures of metacognitive monitoring, and text cohesion of video annotations were used to estimate the volume of tool use and the quality of the learning strategy and learning products created. The results confirmed that scaffolding (e.g., graded activity with instructional feedback) is required to guide students’ initial tool use, although scaffolding did not have an independent significant effect on the quantity of tool use. The findings demonstrated that the use of the tool is strongly influenced by the experience an individual student gains from scaffolded conditions. That is, the students sustained their use of the learning tool in future courses even when the tool use was not graded nor was instructional feedback provided. An important implication is that students’ tool use is not solely driven by motivation – rather, it is shaped by instructional conditions and experience with the tool use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)207-220
Number of pages14
JournalComputers in Human Behavior
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Instructional scaffolding
  • Learning analytics
  • Learning technology adoption
  • Self-regulated learning

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