Amylin deficiency in mice results in late-onset osteopenia. Sex differences have been identified in insulin secretion in Amylin-overexpressing transgenic mice, suggesting a possible interaction of sex steroids, growth factors, or cytokines and amylin. The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of amylin deficiency on bone in young and adult male and female mice. The metaphyses of the distal femora from male and female Amylin-deficient mice at 4, 6, and 26 weeks of age were assessed by bone histomorphometry. Femoral length was increased in Amylin-deficient male mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice at 26 weeks of age (P <0.005) but not in females. This was associated with an increase in growth plate height in Amylin-deficient males at 4 (P <0.01) and 6 (P <0.05) weeks of age. Furthermore, young Amylin-deficient males had decreased trabecular number at 4 weeks of age (P <0.05) and increased trabecular thickness at 4 and 6 weeks of age (P <0.05) compared to WT mice, with no net change in trabecular bone volume. These effects of amylin deficiency were not observed in female mice. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amylin deficiency exerts effects on bone during growth that are sex-dependent and suggest a possible interaction between amylin and testosterone, growth factors, or cytokines to regulate bone cell metabolism.