Effects of a multicomponent resistance-based exercise program with protein, vitamin D and calcium supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with ADT: Secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial

Niamh Liana Mundell, Patrick J. Owen, Jack Dalla Via, Helen MacPherson, Robin Daly, Patricia M. Livingston, Timo Rantalainen, Stephen Foulkes, Jeremy Millar, Declan G. Murphy, Steve Fraser

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives The aim of this preplanned secondary analysis of a 12-month randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise programme combined with daily whey protein, calcium and vitamin D supplementation on cognition in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Design 12-month, two-arm, randomised controlled trial. Setting University clinical exercise centre. Participants 70 ADT-treated men were randomised to exercise-training plus supplementation (Ex+ Suppl, n=34) or usual care (control, n=36). Intervention Men allocated to Ex + Suppl undertook thrice weekly resistance training with weight-bearing exercise training plus daily whey protein (25 g), calcium (1200 mg) and vitamin D (2000 IU) supplementation. Primary and secondary outcome measures Cognition was assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 months via a computerised battery (CogState), Trail-making test, Rey auditory-verbal learning test and Digit span. Data were analysed with linear mixed models and an intention-to-treat and prespecified per-protocol approach (exercise-training: ≥66%, nutritional supplement: ≥80%). Results Sixty (86%) men completed the trial (Ex + Suppl, n=31; control, n=29). Five (7.1%) men were classified as having mild cognitive impairment at baseline. Median (IQR) adherence to the exercise and supplement was 56% (37%-82%) and 91% (66%-97%), respectively. Ex + Suppl had no effect on cognition at any time. Conclusions A 12-month multicomponent exercise training and supplementation intervention had no significant effect on cognition in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer compared with usual care. Exercise training adherence below recommended guidelines does not support cognitive health in men treated with ADT for prostate cancer. Trial registration number Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry (ACTRN12614000317695, registered 25/03/2014) and acknowledged under the Therapeutic Goods Administration Clinical Trial Notification Scheme (CT-2015-CTN-03372-1 v1).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere060189
Number of pages12
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • androgen deprivation therapy
  • cognitive function
  • diet
  • physical activity
  • resistance training

Cite this