STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This study was a secondary analysis of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Acupuncture and Clomiphene Trial (PCOSAct), a large randomized controlled trial conducted at 27 hospitals from 2012 to 2015 in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Out of 1000 women with PCOS, SHS exposure status were available in 500 women, of whom 271 women were non-exposed and 229 exposed to cigarette smoke (170 women ?10 cigarettes per day as low-SHS exposed and 59 women >10 cigarettes per day as high-SHS exposed). We compared circulating sex steroids, glucose and lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome and phenotypes, fertility and obstetric outcomes between non-exposed and exposed women. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Women exposed to SHS, compared to non-exposed women, had a higher serum total testosterone (1.7 vs 1.5 nmol/L, P = 0.01), free androgen index (5.7 vs 4.0, P = 0.001) and lower sex hormone binding globulin (30.1 vs 35.6 nmol/L, P = 0.03). Metabolic syndrome, but not other phenotypes, was more frequent in exposed women as compared to nonexposed women (21.8 vs 13.3%, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=1.66; 95% CI, 1.022.71, P = 0.04). Ovulation rates between exposed and nonexposed groups were not significantly different (76.9 vs 82.9%, adjusted OR=0.72; 95% CI, 0.451.15, P = 0.17). Conception rates were significant lower in the exposed group (26.6 vs 36.9%; adjusted OR=0.61; 95% CI, 0.410.91; P = 0.01), while clinical pregnancy and live birth rates showed a similar trend that was not statistically significant. Gestational age, birth weight and other obstetric outcomes were not affected by SHS exposure. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Data on SHS exposure were missing in 50% of the women. We did not assay serum nicotine or cotinine levels to quantify the SHS exposure status. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: These data suggest that smoking partners of infertile women with PCOS who seek treatment should be advised to quit smoking.
- metabolic syndrome
- polycystic ovary syndrome
- pregnancy and obstetric outcomes
- second-hand smoke
- sex hormones