Effect of Different Piperacillin-Tazobactam Dosage Regimens on Synergy of the Combination with Tobramycin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the Pharmacokinetics of Critically Ill Patients in a Dynamic Infection Model

Jessica R. Tait, Hajira Bilal, Kate E. Rogers, Yinzhi Lang, Tae Hwan Kim, Jieqiang Zhou, Steven C. Wallis, Jürgen B. Bulitta, Carl M.J. Kirkpatrick, David L. Paterson, Jeffrey Lipman, Phillip J. Bergen, Jason A. Roberts, Roger L. Nation, Cornelia B. Landersdorfer

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4 Citations (Scopus)


We evaluated piperacillin-tazobactam and tobramycin regimens against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from critically ill patients. Static-concentration time-kill studies (SCTK) assessed piperacillin-tazobactam and tobramycin monotherapies and combinations against four isolates over 72 h. A 120 h-dynamic in vitro infection model (IVM) investigated isolates Pa1281 (MICpiperacillin 4 mg/L, MICtobramycin 0.5 mg/L) and CR380 (MICpiperacillin 32 mg/L, MICtobramycin 1 mg/L), simulating the pharmacokinetics of: (A) tobramycin 7 mg/kg q24 h (0.5 h-infusions, t1/2 = 3.1 h); (B) piperacillin 4 g q4 h (0.5 h-infusions, t1/2 = 1.5 h); (C) piperacillin 24 g/day, continuous infusion; A + B; A + C. Total and less-susceptible bacteria were determined. SCTK demonstrated synergy of the combination for all isolates. In the IVM, regimens A and B provided initial killing, followed by extensive regrowth by 72 h for both isolates. C provided >4 log10 CFU/mL killing, followed by regrowth close to initial inoculum by 96 h for Pa1281, and suppressed growth to <4 log10 CFU/mL for CR380. A and A + B initially suppressed counts of both isolates to <1 log10 CFU/mL, before regrowth to control or starting inoculum and resistance emergence by 72 h. Overall, the combination including intermittent piperacillin-tazobactam did not provide a benefit over tobramycin monotherapy. A + C, the combination regimen with continuous infusion of piperacillin-tazobactam, provided synergistic killing (counts <1 log10 CFU/mL) of Pa1281 and CR380, and suppressed re-growth to <2 and <4 log10 CFU/mL, respectively, and resistance emergence over 120 h. The shape of the concentration–time curve was important for synergy of the combination.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101
Number of pages13
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022


  • Dynamic infection model
  • Pharmacodynamics
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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