Effect of collated fly ash, GGBS and silica fume on index and engineering properties of expansive clays as a sustainable landfill liner

Manikanta Devarangadi, Srikanth Vuppala, M. Uma Shankar, Mavinakere Eshwaraiah Raghunandan

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The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as fly ash (FA), GGBS and silica fume (SF) on the geotechnical index and engineering properties of expansive clays (EC) are studied in this research work. This manuscript aims to determine the workability (consistency limits (CL)), swellability (free swell index (FSI)), compaction properties, strength characteristics (UCS) and hydraulic conductivity (HC) of varied eighteen mix proportions of FA-EC (P-series), FA-GGBS-EC (Q-series) and FA-GGBS-SF-EC (R-series) are experimentally studied as a bottom liner in landfills. From the test results, CL and FSI significantly decreased in P, Q and R series, this is due to the effect of flocculation, a process that increases the average particle size of mix blends and also depletion of the double-diffusive layer thickness of EC by promoting the Ca2+ ions in the pore water from SCMs. The compaction parameters such as optimum moisture content decreased in all the series, due to the higher flocculation of mixes. However, maximum dry unit weight increased in Q and R and decreased in the P series. The UCS values increased with an increase in optimum SCMs quantities and with curing intervals tested at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days. The higher UCS value is attained at 40 %FA with EC (i.e. P2), 60 %FA-GGBS with EC (i.e. Q3) and 60 %FA-GGBS-SF with EC (i.e. R3) in R-series which confirmed to be optimum due to the loss of cementation action/reduced cohesion in the matrix. In the case of HC, P2, Q3 and R3 mixes are confirmed to be optimum and fall under the criterion standards of landfill liner as per USEPA recommendation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100219
JournalCleaner Materials
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Expansive clay
  • Fly ash
  • GGBS
  • Landfill liner
  • Silica fume
  • Waste recycling

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