Effect of birth weight on life-course blood pressure levels among children born premature: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study

Markus Juonala, Michael M H Cheung, Matthew A. Sabin, David Burgner, Michael R Skilton, Mika Kähönen, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Antti Jula, Tomi Laitinen, Eero Jokinen, Leena Taittonen, Päivi Tossavainen, Jorma S A Viikari, Costan G. Magnussen, Olli T Raitakari

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27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Both fetal growth restriction and prematurity have been associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, their combined effects on adult BP are unclear. Methods: Our analyses were based on 1756 participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had information on birth weight and gestational age, together with longitudinal data on cardiovascular risk markers from age 3-18 years in 1980 to age 34-49 years in 2011. Three groups were defined by birth data: those born at term (term); those born preterm (<37 weeks) with an appropriate birth weight (>-1 SD z score according to national sex and gestational week-stratified data) for gestational age (preterm appropriate birth weight for gestational age); and those born preterm with low birth weight (≤-1 SD z score) for gestational age [preterm small birth weight for gestational age (SGA)]. Results: There were no differences between the three groups in BP at baseline, but at the 31-year follow-up (mean age 41 years), mean SBP in the preterm SGA group was 7.2 mmHg (95% confidence interval=2.3-12.1 mmHg, P=0.004) higher than the preterm appropriate birth weight for gestational age group and 7.3 mmHg (95% confidence interval=5.2-9.4 mmHg, P<0.0001) higher than the term group, adjusted for age and sex. In addition, preterm SGA individuals had a higher prevalence of adult hypertension compared with those born at term (36.9 vs. 25.4%; age, sex, and risk factors adjusted P=0.006). Conclusion: These longitudinal data suggest that elevated BP levels associated with prematurity are more likely to be present in those with fetal growth restriction.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1542-1548
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Hypertension
Volume33
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Aug 2015

Keywords

  • birth weight
  • blood pressure
  • prematurity

Cite this

Juonala, M., Cheung, M. M. H., Sabin, M. A., Burgner, D., Skilton, M. R., Kähönen, M., Hutri-Kähönen, N., Lehtimäki, T., Jula, A., Laitinen, T., Jokinen, E., Taittonen, L., Tossavainen, P., Viikari, J. S. A., Magnussen, C. G., & Raitakari, O. T. (2015). Effect of birth weight on life-course blood pressure levels among children born premature: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Journal of Hypertension, 33(8), 1542-1548. https://doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000000612