Effect of antiepileptic medication on bone mineral measures

S. J. Petty, L. M. Paton, T. J. O'Brien, J. Makovey, B. Erbas, P. Sambrook, S. F. Berkovic, John Wark

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Objective: Long-term antiepileptic drug (AED) use has been associated with bone disease, but many previous studies have been limited by inadequate control subjects. We used a cotwin affected sib-pair model to investigate this issue. Methods: The authors studied 31 female twin (15 monozygous and 16 dizygous) and four sibling pairs (<3 years age difference) aged 21 to 75 years, in which one member had >12 months of AED treatment. Areal bone mineral density (ABMD, g/cm2) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and total forearm (FA). Three primary a priori defined subgroups were analyzed: a) use for >2 years, b) use of enzyme-inducing AEDs, or c) age older than 40 years. Results: For all pairs (n = 35), there were no significant within-pair differences in any ABMD measure. However, in Subgroup a (n = 27), there was a within-pair difference at the FA (0.513 vs 0.534, -3.9%, p = 0.016). In Subgroup b (n = 29), there was also a within-pair difference at the FA for AED user vs nonuser (0.508 vs 0.529, -3.8%, p = 0.010). In Subgroup c (n = 15), there were within-pair differences at the FA (0.492 vs 0.524, -6.1%, p = 0.017) and the LS (0.884 vs 0.980, -9.8%, p = 0.036). Conclusions: Patients using AEDs for >2 years, in particular those taking enzyme-inducing AEDs and those older than 40 years, have significantly lower bone mineral density at clinically relevant fracture risk sites.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1358-1363
Number of pages6
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 8 Nov 2005
Externally publishedYes

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