BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Expression of numerous chemokine-related genes is increased in the brain after ischemic stroke. Here, we tested whether post-stroke administration of a chemokine-binding protein (CBP), derived from the parapoxvirus bovine papular stomatitis virus, might reduce infiltration of leukocytes into the brain and consequently limit infarct development. METHODS: The binding spectrum of the CBP was evaluated in chemokine ELISAs, and binding affinity was determined using surface plasmon resonance. Focal stroke was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hour followed by reperfusion for 23 or 47 hours. Mice were treated intravenously with either bovine serum albumin (10 mug) or CBP (10 mug) at the commencement of reperfusion. At 24 or 48 hours, we assessed plasma levels of the chemokines CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL2/MIP-2, as well as neurological deficit, brain leukocyte infiltration, and infarct volume. RESULTS: The CBP interacted with a broad spectrum of CC, CXC, and XC chemokines and bound CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL2/MIP-2 with high affinity (pM range). Stroke markedly increased plasma levels of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL2/MIP-2, as well as numbers of microglia and infiltrating leukocytes in the brain. Increases in plasma chemokines were blocked in mice treated with CBP, in which there was reduced neurological deficit, fewer brain-infiltrating leukocytes, and approximately 50 smaller infarcts at 24 hours compared with bovine serum albumin-treated mice. However, CBP treatment was no longer protective at 48 hours. CONCLUSIONS: Post-stroke administration of CBP can reduce plasma chemokine levels in association with temporary atten uation of brain inflammation and infarct volume development.