Effect of 2D spatial variability on slope reliability: A simplified FORM analysis

Jian Ji, Chunshun Zhang, Yufeng Gao, Jayantha Kodikara

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75 Citations (Scopus)


To meet the high demand for reliability based design of slopes, we present in this paper a simplified HLRF (Hasofer–Lind–Rackwitz–Fiessler) iterative algorithm for first-order reliability method (FORM). It is simply formulated in x-space and requires neither transformation of correlated random variables nor optimization tools. The solution can be easily improved by iteratively adjusting the step length. The algorithm is particularly useful to practicing engineers for geotechnical reliability analysis where standalone (deterministic) numerical packages are used. Based on the proposed algorithm and through direct perturbation analysis of random variables, we conducted a case study of earth slope reliability with complete consideration of soil uncertainty and spatial variability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1631-1638
Number of pages8
JournalGeoscience Frontiers
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2018


  • First-order reliability method (FORM)
  • HLRF algorithm
  • Probability of failure
  • Random field model
  • Slope stability
  • Spatial variability

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