Effect of 16-weeks vitamin D replacement on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in overweight and obese adults

Jakub Mesinovic, Aya Mousa, Kirsty Wilson, Robert Scragg, Magdalena Plebanski, Maximilian de Courten, David Scott, Negar Naderpoor, Barbora de Courten

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This randomised placebo-controlled trial aimed to determine the effect of 16-weeks cholecalciferol supplementation on calcium-phosphate homeostasis and bone mineral density (BMD) in overweight and obese adults. Fifty-four vitamin D-deficient (25OHD<50 nmol/L), overweight and obese adults (mean age 32 ± 8.5 years) were included in the trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a bolus oral dose of 100,000 IU cholecalciferol followed by 4000 IU cholecalciferol/d or a matching placebo for 16 weeks. Before and after the intervention, serum calcium, phosphate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and C-terminal plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (cFGF-23) concentrations were measured. Whole-body BMD was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and diet and sun exposure were assessed using self-administered questionnaires. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between the vitamin D and placebo group. After 16-weeks of vitamin D supplementation, mean changes in 25(OH)D concentration were higher in the vitamin D group (57 nmol/L 95% CI 49, 65) compared with placebo (2 nmol/L 95% CI -4, 8), P < 0.001. Additionally, iPTH concentrations declined in the vitamin D group (−1.19 pmol/L 95% CI −1.9, −0.47) compared with placebo (0.14 pmol/L 95% CI −0.49, 0.77), P = 0.006. There were no significant differences in calcium, phosphate, iPTH and cFGF-23 concentrations and whole-body BMD between vitamin D and placebo at follow-up. Inverse correlations were observed between mean change in serum iPTH and cFGF-23 in the vitamin D group only (r=-0.41, P = 0.029). In individuals with greater vitamin D deficiency at baseline (25(OH)D < 30 nmol/L), there was a significant increase in mean whole-body BMD (0.01 g/cm2, 95% CI 0.001, 0.025) however, the mean change in BMD was not different between vitamin D and placebo groups in this sub-group analysis. We conclude that cholecalciferol supplementation for 16 weeks increases serum 25(OH)D concentrations and reduces iPTH concentrations in overweight and obese, but otherwise healthy adults with vitamin D deficiency, and has no effect on calcium, phosphate and iFGF-23 concentrations and whole-body BMD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-175
Number of pages7
JournalThe Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2019


  • Bone mineral density
  • Calcium-phosphate homeostasis
  • FGF23
  • Overweight and obese adults
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Vitamin D supplementation

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