Despite an apparent, and explicable, hiatus in the global terrestrial temperature trend, the planet is set for ongoing and substantial increases inaverage temperature since the advent of the industrial era. Changes to climate systems, sea level, and the nature and frequency of extreme events are all anticipated. Indeed, recent work suggests that the impacts will be much more severe, even under the apparently safe level of 2 8C of postindustrial warming, than previously projected. Human population size is also set to increase substantially, with ongoing growth in energy use and conversion of terrestrial systems for urbanization and for food production. Trade and travel via sea, air and land transport networks are all increasing too, perhaps enhanced by ongoing liberalization of trade agreements among various nations. Human migration, precipitated by conflict and by climate change, is likewise forecast to continue to grow in scope and extent.