Editorial: Dynamics and impacts of tropical climate variability: Understanding trends and future projections

Agus Santoso, Andrea S. Taschetto, Shayne McGregor, Mathew Koll Roxy, Christine Chung, Bo Wu, Francois P. Delage

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorialOtherpeer-review


Tropical climate variability such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) exert significant socio-economic and environmental impact on a global scale. El Niño, ENSO positive phase, is characterized by surface warming in the central-eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, weakened trade winds, suppressed upwelling, and atmospheric convection displacements. Consequently, shifts in climate occur, in which anomalous drying typically prevails over Indo-Pacific-rim countries (e.g., India, Indonesia, Australia) and increased rainfall occurs over eastern Pacific-rim countries (e.g., southwest US, Peru). IOD positive phase, with anomalous cooling in the eastern and warming in the western tropical Indian Ocean, leads to drying over Indonesia and parts of Australia, while east Africa and India generally experiencing wetter-than-normal conditions. Opposite impacts are generally seen in their negative phases. ENSO and IOD also modulate intraseasonal variability like the Madden Julian Oscillation and extreme weather phenomena like tropical cyclones.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1148145
Number of pages3
JournalFrontiers in Climate
Publication statusPublished - 7 Feb 2023


  • climate models
  • convolutional neural network (CNN)
  • El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  • ENSO teleconnection
  • equatorial Pacific currents
  • future projection
  • Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
  • South Pacific Meridional Mode

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