Economic evaluations of guideline-directed medical therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a systematic review

Wai Chee Kuan, Ruth Sim, Wei Jin Wong, Juman Dujaili, Sazzli Kasim, Kenneth Kwing Chin Lee, Siew Li Teoh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Objectives: Decision-analytic models (DAMs) with varying structures and assumptions have been applied in economic evaluations (EEs) to assist decision making for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) therapeutics. This systematic review aimed to summarize and critically appraise the EEs of guideline-directed medical therapies (GDMTs) for HFrEF. Methods: A systematic search of English articles and gray literature, published from January 2010, was performed on databases including MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, NHSEED, health technology assessment, Cochrane Library, etc. The included studies were EEs with DAMs that compared the costs and outcomes of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitors, beta-blockers, mineralocorticoid-receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors. The study quality was evaluated using the Bias in Economic Evaluation (ECOBIAS) 2015 checklist and Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) 2022 checklists. Results: A total of 59 EEs were included. Markov model, with a lifetime horizon and a monthly cycle length, was most commonly used in evaluating GDMTs for HFrEF. Most EEs conducted in the high-income countries demonstrated that novel GDMTs for HFrEF were cost-effective compared with the standard of care, with the standardized median incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of $21 361/quality-adjusted life-year. The key factors influencing ICERs and study conclusions included model structures, input parameters, clinical heterogeneity, and country-specific willingness-to-pay threshold. Conclusions: Novel GDMTs were cost-effective compared with the standard of care. Given the heterogeneity of the DAMs and ICERs, alongside variations in willingness-to-pay thresholds across countries, there is a need to conduct country-specific EEs, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, using model structures that are coherent with the local decision context.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1558-1576
Number of pages19
JournalValue in Health
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • cost-effectiveness analysis
  • cost-utility analysis
  • dapagliflozin
  • economic evaluation
  • empagliflozin
  • eplerenone
  • heart failure
  • model
  • sacubitril/valsartan

Cite this