Plant protection products containing nanomaterials that alter the functionality or risk profile of active ingredients (nano-enabled pesticides) promise many benefits over conventional pesticide products. These benefits may include improved formulation characteristics, easier application, better targeting of pest species, increased efficacy, lower application rates, and enhanced environmental safety. After many years of research and development, nano-enabled pesticides are starting to make their way into the market. The introduction of this technology raises a number of issues for regulators, including how does the ecological risk assessment of nano-enabled pesticide products differ from that of conventional plant protection products? In this paper, a group drawn from regulatory agencies, academia, research, and the agrochemicals industry offers a perspective on relevant considerations pertaining to the problem formulation phase of the ecological risk assessment of nano-enabled pesticides.
- problem formulation
- risk assessment