Background: Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a devastating complication of arthroplasty. There are no internationally endorsed consensus management guidelines and treatment approaches differ widely.Aim: The aim of this multicentre study was to examine treatment approaches and predictors of treatment failure in patients with early PJI managed in hospitals in Victoria, Australia.Methods: This cohort study was conducted across 10 hospitals over a three-year period (January 2006 to December 2008) and involved 147 patients who presented with early PJI.Findings: Most patients (76%) were managed with debridement and retention of the prosthesis. Patients were followed for a median 20 months (interquartile range: 7–36). Overall 43 patients experienced treatment failure with a 12-month infection-free survival estimate of 76% [95% confidence interval (CI): 68–83%]. The following factors were associated with treatment failure: septic revision arthroplasty (hazard ratio: 7.5; 95% CI: 2.4–23.1; P < 0.0001), hypotension at presentation (4.9; 1.5–15.7; P = 0.007), one-stage exchange (3.1; 1.0–9.2; P = 0.048), total duration of antibiotic therapy <90 days: specifically <30 days (18.5; 5.4–63.1; P < 0.001), 30–60 days (8.0; 2.6–23.9; P < 0.001) and 60–90 days (7.3; 2.2–24.4; P = 0.001), respectively. Effective empiric antibiotic therapy was associated with a decreased risk of treatment failure (0.20; 0.09–0.47; P < 0.001).Conclusions: The management approach in Australia differs from that used elsewhere in the world. We have identified a number of clinically relevant risk factors for treatment failure that may impact on treatment recommendations.
- Prosthetic joint infection
- Treatment outcomes