The plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) gene qnrE1 has been limited to South America to date; in 2007, it was identified for the first time in Klebsiella pneumoniae from a human infection in Argentina (1). A study in Brazil reported the identification of qnrE1 in K. pneumoniae isolated from an infected parrot in 2016 (2). The presence of this gene was also confirmed in Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Newport, and Infantis strains isolated in 2011, 2013, and 2014, respectively, from humans in Brazil (3).
- Food-producing animals
- Nontyphoidal Salmonella