OBJECTIVE - Increased deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) within the kidney is driven by profibrotic mediators including transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). We investigated whether some of their effects may be mediated through changes in expression of certain microRNAs (miRNAs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Proximal tubular cells, primary rat mesangial cells, and human podocytes were analyzed for changes in the expression of key genes, ECM proteins, and miRNA after exposure to TGF-β (1-10 ng/μl). Tubular cells were also infected with CTGF-adenovirus. Kidneys from diabetic apoE mice were also analyzed for changes in gene expression and miRNA levels. RESULTS - TGF-β treatment was associated with morphologic and phenotypic changes typical of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) including increased fibrogenesis in all renal cell types and decreased E-cadherin expression in tubular cells. TGF-β treatment also modulated the expression of certain miRNAs, including decreased expression of miR-192/215 in tubular cells, mesangial cells, which are also decreased in diabetic kidney. Ectopic expression of miR-192/215 increased E-cadherin levels via repressed translation of ZEB2 mRNA, in the presence and absence of TGF-β, as demonstrated by a ZEB2 3′-untranslated region luciferase reporter assay. However, ectopic expression of miR-192/215 did not affect the expression of matrix proteins or their induction by TGF-β. In contrast, CTGF increased miR-192/215 levels, causing a decrease in ZEB2, and consequently increased E-cadherin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS - These data demonstrate the linking role of miRNA-192/215 and ZEB2 in TGF-β/CTGF-mediated changes in E-cadherin expression. These changes appear to occur independently of augmentation of matrix protein synthesis, suggesting that a multistep EMT program is not necessary for fibrogenesis to occur.